Vol 21. N°4. 2020  |  Diciembre de 2020


ARTÍCULOS ORIGINALES - NUTRICIÓN


PRESENCIA DE COVID-19 EN ARGENTINOS MENORES DE 65 AÑOS


Autores: VALERIA HIRSCHLER, CONCEPCIÓN GARCÍA, PAULA LIFSZYC, FEDERICO BOERO, CLAUDIO GONZÁLEZ, ANDREA MARTÍNEZ


RESUMEN

Antecedentes: la presencia del virus COVID-19 se ha asociado con adultos de 65 años o más. Sin embargo, poco se ha destacado en los jóvenes.
Objetivos: determinar la asociación de COVID-19 positivo y edad, sexo, índice de masa corporal (IMC), condiciones de salud subyacentes, hospitalización y muerte.
Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio transversal en individuos de 18 a 65 años que fueron evaluados para COVID-19 en el Hospital de Agudos Carlos G. Durand de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, en julio de 2020, durante 15 días. Se calcularon datos sobre sexo, edad, tabaquismo, asma e hipertensión. Se utilizó reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa (RT-PCR, del inglés reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) para la detección del ácido ribonucleico ARN de SARS-CoV-2 (en inglés, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2).
Resultados: se incluyó en el estudio un total de 407 (225 femenino, 55,3%) individuos de 37,5±11,4 años. El 48,6% (189) fue confirmado COVID-19. El IMC promedio fue 27,5±5,2. El 37,1% (151) tenía sobrepeso y el 26,8% (109) era obeso. Hubo una prevalencia significativamente mayor de COVID-19 confirmada en personas con asma (7,9% vs 2,5%; p=0,01). El resultado COVID-19 confirmado se asoció con el sexo masculino (r=-0,12; p=0,02) y la presencia de asma (r=0,11; p=0,02). Los análisis de regresión logística múltiple mostraron que la COVID-19 confirmada se asoció con el sexo masculino (OR 0,62; IC del 95%: 0,42-0,93; p 0,02) y el asma (OR3,30; IC del 95%: 1,17-9,34; p 0,02) ajustado por variables de confusión. Hubo una mayor prevalencia de hipertensión (21,1% vs 5,4%; p=0,024) entre quienes fueron hospitalizados. La hospitalización se asoció con hipertensión (OR5,71 IC del 95%: 1,43-22,75; p 0,014) ajustada por variables de confusión.
Conclusiones: la COVID-19 se diagnosticó en individuos menores de 65 años, que es un grupo de edad diferente al reportado habitualmente. La COVID-19 confirmada se asoció con el sexo masculino y el asma. La tasa de individuos hospitalizados fue del 4,4% y se asoció con hipertensión. La tasa de mortalidad de los examinados fue del 0%. Deben realizarse estudios longitudinales futuros para confirmar estos hallazgos.

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PRESENCE OF COVID-19 IN ARGENTINES UNDER 65 YEARS OF AGE

SUMMARY

Background: the presence of the COVID-19 virus has been associated with adults aged 65 years and older. However, little has been highlighted in younger people.
Objectives: to determine the association of positive COVID-19 and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), underlying health conditions, hospitalization, and death.
Materials and methods: a cross-sectional study was performed in individuals aged 18 to 65 who were tested for COVID-19 at a Hospital in Buenos Aires in July 2020 over 15 days. Data on sex, age, smoking, asthma, and hypertension were assessed. RT-PCR was used for the detection of the RNA of SARS-CoV-2.
Results: a total of 407 (225 female, 55.3%) individuals aged 37.5±11.4 were included in the study. 48.6% (189) were confirmed COVID-19. The average BMI was 27.5±5.2; 37.1% (151) were overweight and 26.8% (109) obese. There was a significantly higher prevalence of confirmed COVID-19 in individuals with asthma (7.9% vs 2.5%; p=0.01). Confirmed COVID-19 was associated with the male sex (r=-0.12; p=0.02) and the presence of asthma (r=0.11; p=0.02). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that confirmed COVID-19 was associated with male sex (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.42-0.93; p 0.02) and asthma (OR3.30, 95% CI 1.17-9.34; p 0.02) adjusted for confounding variables. There was a higher prevalence of hypertension (21.1% vs 5.4%; p=0.024) among those who were hospitalized. Hospitalization was associated with hypertension (OR5.71 95% CI 1.43-22.75; p 0.014) adjusted for confounding variables.
Conclusions: we found that COVID-19 was diagnosed in individuals younger than 65 years, which is a different age group than the usually reported. Confirmed COVID-19 was associated with male sex and asthma. The rate of hospitalized individuals was 4.4% and was associated with hypertension. The mortality rate for those tested was 0%. Future longitudinal studies should be performed to confirm these findings.



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