Vol 21. N°1. 2020  |  Enero-Marzo de 2020


REVISIÓN - NUTRICIÓN


DIETA ALCALINA Y SU RELACIÓN CON LA SALUD Y LA ENFERMEDAD: UNA REVISIÓN SISTEMÁTICA


Autores: ALCIDES JUAN DIEGO CABALLERO, CAROLINA CLERICI


RESUMEN

Introducción: el balance ácido-base del ser humano se encuentra en constante equilibrio, pero ciertos alimentos, según su naturaleza química, pueden influir sobre este mecanismo y desequilibrarlo. Actualmente estas dietas basadas en la alcalinidad del medio interno están en auge, por lo que se han convertido en un tema de relevancia social.
Objetivos: conocer el estado actual de la cuestión en lo referente a la incorporación de una dieta alcalina y alimentos alcalinizantes, y su relación con la salud y la enfermedad.
Materiales y métodos: para abordar esta problemática se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática que permitió dar una actualización y generalización acerca del tema. Se realizó siguiendo las directrices Strobe y se utilizaron nueve temas de los 22 de la lista de control. La búsqueda se realizó en PubMed utilizando la palabra clave alkaline diet, en inglés. Se obtuvieron 30 artículos, de los cuales 15 cumplieron los criterios de selección.
Resultados: según los artículos analizados, lo que diferencia a un alimento ácido de uno alcalino es la variación entre los iones o moléculas ionizadas presentes en cada uno. En general se define a la dieta alcalina como aquella compuesta mayoritariamente por frutas y verduras, con bajo contenido de alimentos de origen animal altos en proteínas, como las carnes, los huevos y los quesos, asociados a una dieta más ácida. El contenido elevado de K junto con los bajos niveles de Cl y Na caracterizaron a las dietas alcalinas, mientras que aquellas en las que el Cl y Na fueron predominantes representaron a las dietas ácidas.
Conclusiones: a partir de los artículos analizados no es posible concluir sobre las consecuencias de una dieta alcalina sobre la salud y la enfermedad, coincidiendo con otras revisiones en la necesidad de más estudios que permitan probar los beneficios de la dieta alcalina.

Palabras clave: dieta alcalina; salud y enfermedad; revisión sistemática.

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ALKALINE DIET AND ITS RELATION WITH HEALTH AND DESEASE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

SUMMARY

Introduction: the acid-base balance of the human being is in constant equilibrium, but certain foods, depending on their chemical nature, can influence this mechanism by unbalancing it. Currently these diets based on the alkalinity of the internal environment are booming, so they have become a topic of social relevance.
Objectives: to describe the current state of the art on the incorporation of an alkaline diet and alkalizing foods, and its relation to health and disease.
Materials and methods: to address this problem, a systematic review was carried out that allowed an update and generalization on the subject. It was carried out following the Strobe guidelines, 9 items of the 22 of the checklist were used. The search was conducted in PubMed using the keyword: alkaline diet, in English. Thirty articles were obtained, fifteen of which met the selection criteria.
Results: according to the articles analyzed, what differentiates an acidic food from an alkaline one is the variation between the ions or ionized molecules present in each. In general, the alkaline diet is defined as composed mainly of fruits and vegetables, with a low content of animal foods high in protein, such as meats, eggs and cheeses, associated with a more acidic diet. The high K content together with the low levels of Cl and Na characterized the alkaline diets under study; while those in which Cl and Na were predominant represented acid diets.
Conclusions: the articles analyzed are inconclusive as to the consequences of an alkaline diet on health and disease, in line with other reviews on the need for more studies to prove the benefits of the alkaline diet.

Key words: alkaline diet; health and disease; systematic review.



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